Glossary

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A

Acid Drainage
Any drainage water from mine workings, waste and tailings, with a low (acidic) pH or excess acidity made acidic in most cases by a chemical reaction.

Acid Rock Drainage (ARD)
Means the production of acidic leachate, seepage or drainage from underground workings, open pits, ore stockpiles, waste rock stockpiles, construction rock, drill cuttings, and other rocks used for other purposes associated with the Project that can lead to the

Acidity
A measure of the capacity of a solution to neutralize a strong base.

Act
Means the Nunavut Waters and Nunavut Rights Tribunal Act, R.S.C. 2002, c.10.

Acutely Lethal Effluent
Means effluent as defined in the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations, SOR/2002-222.

Aeration
Process of blowing air (or other gas such as carbon dioxide) through a liquid or solid.

Aerobic
Any biological process the occurs in the presence of oxygen; also applies to organisms that require oxygen to survive.

Alkalinity
A measure of the capacity of a solution to neutralize a strong acid.

Anaerobic
Any process that can occur without oxygen; also applies to organisms that can survive without oxygen.

Analysis
A close look at something to find out more about it; can involve looking closely at the individual parts of something and describing them.

Analyst
Means an Analyst designated by the Minister under section 85 (1) of the Act.

Anthropogenic
Caused or produced as a result of human activity.

Application
Means a written request to the Board to exercise its power under the Act.

Aquatic
Relates to fresh and salt water; some plants and animals live in water and are called aquatic species.

Aquatic Effects Monitoring Plan (AEMP)
Means a monitoring program designed to determine the short term and long-term effects of the Project’s activities on the aquatic environment resulting from the Project, to evaluate the accuracy of impact predictions, to assess the effectiveness of planned impact mitigation measures and to identify additional impact mitigation measures to avert or reduce environmental effects.

Aquifer
An underground layer of rock or soil that contains water and can supply a large quantity of water to wells and springs.

Assessment
A written decision about the importance, size or value of something; for example, an environmental assessment may describe the value of arctic char after studying the char, the fishermen, the method of fishing and the effect on the environment.

Assignee
Means the person or organization to whom a licence is being transferred.

Assignor
Means the person or organization who holds a licence and wishes to make a transfer.

Assimilative Capacity
The amount of pollutants that a water body may absorb while maintaining water quality.

Attenuate
Reduce in magnitude.

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B

Backfilling
The return of wastes or other material underground for disposal organisms when discarded; for example, some types of paper can be eaten by living organisms that live in soil.

Batch Concrete Plant
Means a mobile or stationary plant used to mix cement, aggregate, and water to produce concrete for footings, foundations, floors, and other project facilities, and infrastructure proposed by a project proponent.

Bedrock
Solid rock underneath soil, gravel or loose boulders, the Canadian Shield is composed of bedrock.

Best Management Practices
Management or construction practices designed to reduce the impact on the environment.

Biannual
Means, in the context of monitoring frequency, one sampling event occuring every six (6) months with a minimum of one hundred eighty days between sampling events.

Bioaccumulation
Occurs when plants or animals collect contaminants in their tissues over time; when low amounts of the contaminants are continually absorbed, they build up and can cause problems that do not kill the plant or animal immediately.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
A laboratory test that indicates the quantity of organic materials present in a water sample.

Biodegradable
Something that is made to fall apart and is eaten by tiny standards.

Biodiversity
The number of different plants and animals that live in a specific area.

Bioindicators
Organisms that are used to detect changes in environmental pollutant levels.

Biomagnification
An increase in concentration of a substance at each progressive link in the food chain (for example: berries -> birds -> foxes -> bears, the concentration of a contaminant such as lead would be highest in a large meat eater).

Bioremediation
A process to reduce contaminant levels in soil or water using microorganisms or vegetation.

Biota
The animals, plants, and microorganisms that live in a specific area.

Buffering Capacity
The ability of a substance to resist an increase or decrease in pH.

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C

Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA)
Federal Law that requires federal departments or agencies to determine the environmental implications of certain projects by ensuring that an environmental assessment is conducted.

Chlorination
Process of purifying/disinfecting water by adding chlorine.

Coarse Rejects
Waste rock that is produced early in a mine’s processing stage, the rock is not further crushed or concentrated because it contains little or no economic value.

Concentrate
Ore that has been separated from the valueless rock and is ready for further processing, the concentrate has a higher portion of the product (e.g. gold or diamonds).

Concentration
The process of separating a mineral from the valueless rock in preparation for further processing; also the amount of a substance in a given weight or volume of material.

Conductivity
A measure of the ability of a liquid to transmit electrical current.

Construction Phase
Means any activities undertaken for the purposes of establishing or constructing components, infrastructure, and facilities required for a given project.

Contact Water
Means surface water or runoff that is physically or chemically affected by a mining project's development areas and/or activities.

Contaminant
Introduced species or materials which were either not previously present or were present in lesser amounts.

Cumulative Effects
The combined environmental impacts that accumulate over time and space from a series of similar or related individual actions, contaminants, or projects.

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D

Dam Safety Guidelines
Means the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) Dam Safety Guidelines (DSG), Januarry 1999 or subsequent approved editions.

Decommissioning
The process of permanently closing a facility/site, includes rehabilitation of the affected land and water and plans for their future maintenance.

Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO)
DFO is responsible for policies and programs related to oceans and inland waters; the conservation and sustainable utilisation of Canada’s fisheries resources; DFO issues authorizations for work that impacts fish habitat and requires a no “net loss” of fish habitat, inspectors ensure that the conditions of the authorizations are met.

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (INAC)
INAC is a federal department whose mandate includes supporting political and economic development in Nunavut; INAC also has resource management responsibilities and provides inspection, compliance, and enforcement services for federal lands and waters.

Designated Inuit Organization ("DIO")
Means: (a) except in the case of the jointly owned lands referred to in section 40.2.8 of the Agreement, (i.) Tunngavik, or (ii.) in repsect of a provision of this Act referred to in Schedule 1, any organization designated in the public record maintained by Tunngavik under the Agreement as being responsible for any function under the corresponding provision or provisions of the Agreement referred to in that Schedule; or (b) in the case of the jointly owned lands referred to in section 40.2.8 of the Agreement, Makivik acting jointly with the organization determined under paragraph (a).

Dewater
To remove water from a mine (underground or open pit), or from a mixture of ground rock and water.

Diamond Drill
A piece of equipment used mostly to drill through the hard rock under ground using a drill bit with diamonds on it, the diamonds can cut through hard rock better than a metal drill bit.

Dilution
To decrease the concentration of a substance by mixing it with another.

Disposal
The relocation, containment, treatment, or processing of unwanted materials; may involve the removal or conversion of contaminants to less harmful forms.

Dissolution
The process of dissolving a solid in a liquid.

Distribution List
Means a list compiled on a project-by-project basis, as to which information and correspondence is forwarded relating to any developments in the processing of a specific application.

Document
Means anything in printed form, and telecommunication or electronic transmission capable of being reduced to a printed format, and video or audio tape recordings.

Domestic Purpose
Means the use of waters for the following purposes: (a) household requirements, including sanitation and fire prevention; (b) the watering of domestic animals; © the irrigation of a garden that adjoins a dwelling-house and is not ordinarily used in the growth of produce for market.

Drainage and Surface Water Management System
Means the network of ditches, drains, and channels, including storm water and ore stockpile runoff system, designed and constructed to collect and manage surface runoff from project site infrastructure and facilities associated with the project.

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E

Ecosystem
The living (plants and animals) and non-living (land, air, and water) parts of the Earth and the relationships they have with each other; an ecosystem is a community of plants, animals, and non-living things that live in the same place.

Elder
Means any member of the community recognized as such in accordance with local culture, customs, and traditions or someone recognized for their experience in Inuit culture, customs, and knowledge.

Engineer
Means a professional engineer registered to practice in Nunavut in accordance with the Cosolidation of Engineers and Geoscientists Act S. Nu 2008, c.2 and the Engineering and Geoscience Professions Act S.N.W.T. 2006, c.16 Amended by S.N.W.T. 2009, C.12.

Engineered Structure
Means any facility, which was designed and approved by a Professional Engineer registered with the Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists, and Geophysicists of Nunavut.

Engineering Geologist
Means a professional geologist registered with the Association of Professional Engineers, Geologist and Geophysicists of Nunavut and whose principal field of specialization is the investigation and interpretation of geological conditions for civil engineering purposes.

Environment Canada (EC)
Environment Canada (EC) protects the environment, conserves the country's natural heritage, and provides weather and meteorological information to keep Canadians informed and safe.

Environment Impact Statement (EIS)
A report submitted by a company that describes their project or development, the possible environmental impacts and includes their plans to reduce the impacts of their development; the report is reviewed by the Nunavut Water Board, Nunavut Impact Review Board, appropriate government agencies and the public.

Environmental Assessment
Means the totality of the Nunavut Impact Review Board (NIRB) Public Registry as established under the authority of Article 12 of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement, including all documents associated with the NIRB's assessment process for a given project.

Erosion
Wearing away of rock or soil by water, wind, ice, and other forces.

Evaporation
The process by which water is converted to a vapour (e.g. the heat of the sun converts puddles of rainwater into vapour).

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F

Fecal Coliform
Bacteria from the colons or warm-blooded animals which are released in fecal material.

Filtration
The process of separating liquids from solids by passing the liquid through a mesh or a bed of sand or charcoal.

Final Discharge Point
In respect of an effluent, means an identifiable discharge point of a mine beyond which the operator of the mine no longer exercises control over the quality of the effluent (Metal Mining Effluent Regulations, SOR/2002-222, 6 June, 2002).

Flocculant
A chemical added to water that attaches to small particles and helps them sink; the material that settles on the bottom can be removed to improve the clarity of the water.

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G

Government of Nunavut (GN)
The territorial government of Nunavut.

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H

Habitat
The specific area in which a particular type of plant or animal lives.

Hearing
Means a hearing on an application, the hearing of a motion or a written hearing.

Hydrocarbons
Any substance originating in materials containing carbon and hydrogen in various combinations (e.g. gasoline and oil).

Hydrogeology
The study of groundwater.

Hydrology
The science that deals with water, its properties, and its distribution over the earth’s surface.

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I

Impoundment
A structure or location used for confined storage, such as a pond, lake or reservoir.

Impurity
A chemical substance that is unintentionally present in another substance or mixture.

Incinerate
Means to burn in a unit having engineered controls that permit the control of temperature and emissions

Information Request
Means a written request for information or particulars made by the Board or from one party to another.

Inspector
Means an Inspector designated by the Minister under section 85 (1) of the Nunavut Waters and Nunavut Rights Tribunal Act, R.S.C. 2002, c.10.

Instream Use
Means a use of waters by a person, other than for a domestic purpose or as described in paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of the definition "use", to earn income or for subsistence purposes.

Interim Closure and Reclamation Plan
Means a conceptual detailed plan on the reclamation of project components which will not be closed until the end of project operations, and operational detail for componeents which are to be progressively reclaimed throughout the life of the project.

Intermittent Stream
A watercourse that flows only at certain times of the year, also a watercourse that does not flow continuously.

Intervener
Means any interested party intending to participate in a Board hearing, intending to play a role regarding any issues raised by the application, either by questioning other parties or by bringing forward their own evidence.

Inuit
Means those persons enrolled from time to time under the terms of Article 35 of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement (NLCA) and includes, in the case of the jointly owned lands referred to in section 40.2.8 of the NLCA, the Inuit of northern Quebec.

Inuit of Northern Quebec
Means the Inuit of northern Quebec within the meaning of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement that was approved, given effect and declared valid by the James Bay and Northern Quebec Native Claims Settlement Act, S.C. 1976-77, c.32.

Inuktitut
Means the Inuktitut language and includes Inuinaqtuun.

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K

Kimberlite
A type of rock (produced by volcanic activity) that can contain diamonds.

Kimberlite Pipe
A deposit of kimberlite, called a pipe because it is a narrow vertical deposit that resembles the shape of a pipe.

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L

Landfarm Facilities
Means engineered facilities and associated appurtenance designed and constructed for the treatment and storage of hydrocarbon impacted soil and/or water.

Landfill Facilities
Means engineered facilities and associated appurtenance designed and constructed for the treatment and storage of non-hazardous waste at the project site.

Lands
Does not include water but includes lands covered by water, whether in the onshore or offshore.

Leachate
Water or other liquid that has washed (leached) from a solid material, such as a layer of soil or waste; leachate may contain contaminants.

Leaching
Occurs when a liquid (e.g. water) passes through a substance, picking up some of the material and carrying it to other places; this can happen underground in solid and rock, or above ground through piles of material.

Licensee
Means, unless the context otherwise requires, a Type "A" or Type "B" licence, in accordance with the criteria prescribed by the Nunavut Water Regulations, issued for the use of waters or the deposit of waste, or both, in Nunavut under section 42 of the Nunavut Waters and Nunavut Surface Rights Tribunal Act, S.C. 2002, c. 10.

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M

Makivik
Means the corporation established by An Act respecting the Makivik Corporation, R.S.Q., c. s-18.1, and representing the Inuit of northern Quebec.

Marine Areas
Means that part of Canada's internal waters or territorial sea, whether open or ice-covered, lying within the Nunavut Settlement Area, but does not include inland waters. For greater certainty, the reference to internal waters or territorial sea includes the seabed and subsoil below those internal waters or territorial sea.

Metal
A group of elements that are mined from the Earth and are generally shiny, flexible and able to conduct electricity:

  • Base metal:  a general term applied to relatively inexpensive metals, such as copper, zinc, lead.
  • Heavy Metal:  a general term applied to base metal that commonly occurs in urban and industrial pollution.
  • Precious Metal:  a general term applied to relatively expensive metals such as gold, silver, and platinum.

Metal Leaching
Means the mobilization of metals in solution under neutral, acidic, or alkaline conditions.

Minerals
Means precious and base metals and othe rnon-living, naturally occurring substances whether solid, liquid, or gaseous, excluding water but including coal and petroleum.

Minewater
Water that is pumped or flows out of any underground workings or open pits.

Mitigation
Actions taken with the goal of reducing the negative impacts of a particular land use or activity.

Monitoring Program
Means the program to collect data on surface water and ground water quality to assess impacts to the environment of an appurtenant undertaking.

Monthly
Means, in the context of monitoring frequency, one sampling event occurring every thirty (30) days with a minimum of twenty-one (21) days between sampling events.

Motion
Means a request by an interested party for a ruling or order in a proceeding or in a pending proceeding or a motion of the Board.

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N

National Park
Means (a) an area that has been formally and fully dedicated as a "Park" under the Canada National Parks Act, SC 2000, c 32, or (b) a "National Park Reserve", with respect to the provision of Part 4 of Article 8 and other provisions providing Inuit with the opportunity to secure benefits from the establishment, planning and management of a national Park in the Nunavut Settlement Area.

National Park Reserve
Means an area that has been set aside as a reserve for a National Park under the Canada National Parks Act, SC 2000, c 32.

Natural Resources Canada (NRCan)
Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) is a federal government department specializing in the sustainable development and use of natural resources, energy, minerals and metals, and forests.

Neutralization
Raising the pH of acidic materials or the lowering the pH of alkaline materials to near neutral pH (7).

Non-Contact Water
Means the runoff originating from areas unaffected by project activities that does not come into contact with developed areas.

Nunavut Land Claims Agreement (NLCA)
The "Agreement Between the Inuit of the Nunavut Settlement Area and Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada," including its preamble and schedules, and any amendments to that agreement made pursuant to it.

Nunavut Planning Commission (NPC)
Means the Nunavut Planning Commission referred to in section 11.4.1 of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement.

Nunavut Settlement Area (NSA)
Means the area described in section 3.1.1 of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement.

Nunavut Wildlife Management Board (NWMB)
Means the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board referred to in section 5.2.1 of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement.

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O

Oily Water/Wastewater Treatment Facility
Means the engineered facilities and equipment designed and constructed to treat oily water and/or wastewater generated at relevant project sites.

Open Burn
Means to destroy by fire in the open air or in a container that is open to the air.

Operator
Means a person or the authorized representative of such a person who has rights to explore, develop, produce or transport minerals, other than specified substances, in or on or under Inuit Owned Lands.

Ore
A mineral or solid material containing a precious or useful substance in a quantity and form that makes its extraction/mining profitable.

Overburden
Material that must be removed to gain access to an ore, particularly at a surface (open pit) mine.

Oxidation
The process of adding oxygen to a substance (e.g. adding oxygen to iron causes rust).

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P

Park
Means a National Park or a Territorial Park

Particulate Matter
Very small, separate particles.

Party
Means the Applicant and any Designated Inuit Organizations, Intervener, or the Public involved in the licensing process.

Permafrost
Permanently frozensoil or rock which remains below freezing point throughout the year, as in polar and alpine regions.

pH
A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, the scale ranges from 0-14 with 7 representing neutral solutions, greater than seven pH is called alkaline and less than seven is called acidic; vinegar is an example of an acid, baking soda and water is an alkaline solution.

Pollutant
A contaminant that negatively impacts the physical, chemical, or biological properties of the environment.

Portal
The ground level entrance or opening to an underground mine.

Potable Water
Water safe for human consumption.

Potable Water Supply Facilities
Means the engineered facilities designed and constructed for the treatment and supply of freshwater [fresh Water] for domestic purposes at the project site.

Process Water
Water that is used in an industrial process, such water does not require treatment to make it safe for human consumption.

Processed Kimberlite
The portions of washed or milled kimberlite that is regarded as too poor to be treated further, this material has little or no economic value.

Progressive Reclamation
Means actions that can be taken during project operations before permanent closure, to take advantage of cost and operating efficiencies by using the resources available from project operations to reduce the overall reclamation costs incurred. It enhances environmental protection and shoterns the timeframe for achieving the reclamation objectives and goals.

Project Certificate (PC)
Means a certificate issued by Nunavut Impact Review Board (NIRB) pursuant to section 12.5.12 and 12.6.17 of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement.

Project Proposal
Means a physical work that a proponent proposes to construct, operate, modify, decommission, abandon, or otherwise carry out, or a physical activity that a proponent proposes to undertake or otherwise carry out, such work or activity being within the Nunavut Settlement Area, except as provided in section 12.11.1 of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement.

Proponent
In respect of a project proposal, means the person, body or government authority that proposes the project.

Public
Means any potentially affected person in potentially affected communities, which includes individual members of an affected community, as well as organized community interest groups.

Public Registry
Means the place where records are kept, which are accessible to the public. The Board maintains hardcopies of records in the Gjoa Haven, NU office, and also electronic records accessible on its website located at nwb-oen.ca.

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Q

Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC)
Quality Assurance means the system of activities designed to better ensure that quality control is done effectively; Quality Control means the use of established procedures to achieve standards of measurement for the three principle components of quality: precision, accuracy, and reliability.

Quarry or Quarries
Means the areas of surface excavation for extracting rock material for use as construction materials in the development of infrastructure and facilities for the project.

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R

Receiving Environment
Means both the aquatic and terrestrial environments that receive any discharge resulting from the project.

Recognized Closed Mine
Means a recognized closed mine as defined by section (1) of the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations SOR/2002-222 dated 6 June 2002.

Regulations
Means the Nunavut Waters Regulations, SOR/2013-69, registered on April 18, 2013.

Regulatory Authority
Means a body or person responsible under any federal or territorial law for issuing a licence, permit or other authorization required for a project to proceed but does not include a local government.

Restoration
The renewing or repairing of a natural system so that its functions and qualities are comparable to its original, unaltered state.

Rules
Means the Board's Rules of Practice and Procedure for a Public Hearing.

Runoff
Water that is not absorbed by soil and drains off the land into bodies of water.

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S

Secondary Containment
An impermeable structure, external to and separate from primary containment, which prevents unplanned spills of hazardous materials and provides a minimum capacity of 110% of the original vessel. Where multiple vessels are stored within the containment, it must provide a minimum capacity equal to the sum of a) the largest vessel and 10% of the greater of either b) the largest vessel or c) the aggregate volume of all vessels located in the containment. This structure shall also provide containment and control of hoses and nozzles.

Sediment
The solid material that settles from a liquid.

Seepage
Means any water that drains through or escapes from any site structure designed to contain, withhold, divert, or retain water or waste. Seepage also includes any flows that have emerged through open pits, runoff from waste rock, and ore stockpile areas, quarries, landfill, landfarm, and other facilities.

Settling Pond
A natural or artificial water body used to contain wastewater for the purpose of removing solids before release to the natural environment.

Sewage
All toilet wastes and greywater.

Sewage Disposal Facilities
Comprises the area and structures designed to contain and treat sewage.

Silt
Individual mineral particles ranging in size between find sand and clay.

Siltation
The deposit of sediments (e.g. sand and clay) in a water body that appear as tiny suspended particles.

Sludge
Means biosolids or residual solids generated from the treatment of Sewage generated by a given project.

Solid Waste Disposal Facilities
The area and associated structures designed to contain solid wastes.

Solubility
The quantity of material that dissolves in a given volume of water.

Sump
A structure or depression that collects, controls, and filters liquid waste before it is released to the environment. This structure should be designed to prevent erosion while allowing percolation of liquid waste.

Suspended Solids
Organic and inorganic particles, such as solids from wastewater, sand, and clay that are suspended and carried in water.

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T

Tailings
Those portions of washed or milled ore that are regarded as too poor to be treated further, as distinguished from the concentrates, or material of value.

Toilet Wastes
Means all human excreta and associated products, but does not include greywater.

Toxic
Poisonous, cancer causing, or otherwise directly harmful to life.

Translation
Means written communication transcribed from one language to another. Translation may include Inuktitut, Inuinaqtuun, other Inuit dialects, Canadian official languages, or any other languages deemed relevant for the purposes of the Board.

Tunngavik (NTI)
Means Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, a corporation without share capital Incorporated under Part II of the Canada Corporations Act, R.S.C. 1970, c. C-32, and any successor to that corporation.

Turbidity
Suspended particles in water or wastewater that interferes with the passage of light through the water, high turbidity makes the water appear unclear or cloudy and is harmful to organisms such as fish.

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W

Waste Disposal Facilities
All facilities designated for the disposal of liquid or solid wastes.

Waste Water
Means the water generated by site activities or originates on-site that requires treatment or any other water management activity.

Water Crossing
Means engineered structures, such as bridges, causeway, etc., designed and constructed for the purposes of traversing water ways without significantly impeding the flow of Water.

Water Qualiy Standards
Established limits of certain chemical, physical, and biological parameters in a water body; water quality standards are established for the different designated uses of a water body.

Water Table
The level below which the ground is saturated with water.

Water' or 'Waters'
Means waters as defined in section 4 of the  Nunavut Waters and Nunavut Surface Rights Tribunal Act, S.C. 2002, c. 10.

Watershed
The area of land from which rainfall (and/or snow melt) drains into a single point; ridges of higher ground generally form the boundaries between watersheds and at these boundaries rain falling on one side flows towards the low point of one watershed, while rain falling on the other side of the boundary flows toward the low point of a different watershed.

Weathering
The process by which particles, rocks and minerals are altered on exposure to surface temperatures and pressure, air, water, wind and biological activity.

Weekly
Means, in the context of monitoring frequency, one sampling event occurring every 7 days with a minimum of 5 days between sampling events.

Wetland
Land that is saturated with water or submerged, at least during most of the growing season; wetlands generally include swamps, marshes and bogs.

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